Preparing the Survey
Social values and belief systems influence individuals by shaping their attitudes and behavior (O’Donohue & Nelson, 2009). Beliefs must be rationalized and justified to be believed. Values are at the heart of the belief system and difficult to change. Attitude is a hypothetical structure that represents individual’s like or dislike (Vaske & Donnelly, 1999). The influence of values on attitudes and behavior occurs indirectly via other components in the cognitive hierarchy. For example, “basic beliefs serve to strengthen and give meaning to fundamental values” (Vaske & Donnelly, 1999, p. 525) .
Preconceptions are common in qualitative research because the researcher had done the literature review and formulated a concept in his or her mind that will influence the interview’s outcome. Cohen and Carbtree (2008) stated that publications agree on researchers bias existence and recommend that researchers consider avoiding it during their interviews. Cohen and Carbtree (2008) acknowledge the difficulty in managing research bias and state that “managing bias was quite different depending on the paradigm grounding the work” (p. 333). Face validation helps the researchers to determine if the set of questions would cover the area of interest and generate answers with the needed information(Barnieh et al., 2009). Face validation is a refinement to the survey instrument. The distortion or unbalance in the interview information resulting from misinterpreting the questions could lead to wrong research conclusion and results. Two classmates peer reviewedthe interview questions and their comments and suggestions were incorporated in the final survey forms.
Sampling the Population
Sampling the researched populations tremendously reduce the time needed to research the full population (Kitson et al., 1982). Research cost and effort are generously lowered when the researcher chose to sample the population (Kitson, et al., 1982). Kitson et al (1982) state that sampling techniques are useful in generalizing the research results to a larger population because the sample fairly represent the larger populations. Researcher cannot determine the non-probability samples’ universe or its potential biases. The non-probability sample has huge advantage in developing hypotheses for future researches and low-frequency research issues (Kitson, et al., 1982). Data can be analyzed and interpreted easier when the population is small or when the sample is small and representative of the larger populations. The analysis easiness is found in the effort needed to analysis the data and the lower error probability.
Development of Instruments
The researcher is an observer during the data collection and his or her role is mostly analyzing numerical numbers in the quantitative research. In the qualitative research, the researcher is involved in collecting, interviewing, and analyzing the feedback received from the researched people. Data is typically reported textually in the qualitative research because the information is likely to be extracted from personal feedback during an interview or personal experience during survey filling. Interviews and meetings in the qualitative research needs extra effort spread over long periods to cover most of the interviewees (Shank, 2006, p. 126). Qualitative research needs less effort and rather shorter period to collect the intended data.
Quantitative research includes tests and questionnaires that need statistical calculation to understand. Quantitative research benefits from the existing databases for examination and cross-checking. Qualitative research takes advantage of observations and focused groups (Dodd, 2008). One of the simplest and common research methods is the case study, which uses interviews to study the person (Shank, 2006). Data collection in the quantitative research is done by using secondary data from the available databases.
Ethical issues during data collection
Ethics and research integrity are important during the data collection. The research participant’s choice of involvement is part of the ethical considerations in the research set up (Pyer, 2008). Crow, Wiles, Heath, and Charles (2006) stress the importance of ethical practice during the research and data collection. Acting ethically during the data collection does not conflict with the research effectiveness (Crow, et al., 2006). Many researchers are concerned with the negative effect of ethical considerations on data collection quality, but Crow, Wiles, Heath, and Charles (2006) discredit this concern. Crow, Wiles, Heath, and Charles (2006) acknowledge the need for informed consent even if the ethical and legal considerations are not part of the research.
Qualitative analysis is an investigative method to understand and interpret the data findings into meaningful results that can be generalized on larger groups. Glaser (2009) value the grounded theory simplicity and the data analysis ease because of its low dependence on analytical skills. The qualitative data analysis needs smart questioning and persistent search for answers through active observation. In the qualitative analysis, the researcher engage in a back and forth dialogue with his data, according to Shank (2006). The researcher can analyze and interpret the data while the data collection is in progress.
Quantitative analysis uses statistical methods to analyze the research data to reach measurable relationship between the research variables. The quantitative analysis is perspective and mechanical in nature. The statistical methods are used to determine visible trends in the research data (Creswell, 2005). The researcher sets the research questions, hypothesis, and research design, then collects the data to begin analyzing it. The data is analyzed after the collection process. The experimental setup and survey data collection are relatively faster in the quantitative research than in the qualitative research.
See also in this blog:
Barnieh, L., McLaughlin, K., Manns, B., Klarenbach, S., Yilmaz, S., & Hemmelgarn, B. (2009). Development of a survey to identify barriers to living donation in kidney transplant candidates. Progress In Transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.), 19(4), 304-311.
Cohen, D. J., & Crabtree, B. F. (2008). Evaluative criteria for qualitative research in health care: Controversies and recommendations. Annals Of Family Medicine, 6(4), 331-339.
Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2 ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
Crow, G., Wiles, R., Heath, S., & Charles, V. (2006). Research Ethics and Data Quality: The Implications of Informed Consent. [Article]. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 9(2), 83-95. doi: 10.1080/13645570600595231
Dodd, T. (2008). Quantitative and qualitative research data and their relevance to policy and practice. Nurse Researcher, 15(4), 7-14.
Glaser, B. G. (2009). The Novice GT Researcher. [Article]. Grounded Theory Review, 8(2), 1-21.
Kitson, G. C., Sussman, M. B., Williams, G. K., Zeehandelaar, R. B., Shickmanter, B. K., & Steinberger, J. L. (1982). Sampling Issues in Family Research. [Article]. Journal of Marriage & Family, 44(4), 965-981.
O’Donohue, W., & Nelson, L. (2009). The Role of Ethical Values in an Expanded Psychological Contract. [Article]. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(2), 251-263. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0040-1
Pyer, M. (2008). Unintended Consequences? Exploring the un(fore)seen effects and outcomes of research. [Article]. Children’s Geographies, 6(2), 213-217. doi: 10.1080/14733280801963227
Shank, G. D. (2006). Qualitative research: A personal skills approach (2nd ed.). Columbus: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Vaske, J. J., & Donnelly, M. P. (1999). A value-attitude-behavior model predicting wildland preservations voting intentions. [Article]. Society & Natural Resources, 12(6), 523.