Cross-cultural Models

Woodhull and Louis (2009) state that People are social creatures and their cross-cultural issues falls within four models. The first model is the communal sharing model, which divide the population into in-groups and out-groups (Woodhull & Louis, 2009). In-group members treat each other differently than the out-group and share resources, information, and communication freely between them only. Fraternal organization is a good example to the communal sharing model. The second model is the authority ranking model, which is similar to the military hierarchy that divides the culture into layers and ranks (Woodhull & Louis, 2009). The lower ranks respect and obey their superiors who will take the responsibility. The third model is the equality matching that treat the population equally despite of the differences between them (Woodhull & Louis, 2009). The population members track what the contributed to the population and subtract what they took out. A good example of the equality matching is carpool. The last cross-cultural model Woodhull and Louis (2009) discussed is the market pricing model. Entry to this population is open and the relationship is based on utility, price and value. An example of this model is a for-profit business.


Woodhull, M. D., & Louis, D. J. (2009). Why did they do that??? A cross-cultural study of daily decision-making by mexican maquiladoras and U.S./Canadian managers. Business Journal of Hispanic Research, 3(1), 77-93.

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